S. U. Nabi et al., International Journal of Pure & Applied Bioscience
The diseases which develop on harvested parts of the plants like seeds, fruits are known as postharvest diseases. Pathogen attack may take place during harvesting and subsequent handling, storage, marketing, and after consumer purchase.
The plant parts may get infected in the field, but expression of symptoms may take place later, at any stage before final consumption. The postharvest diseases that cause spoilage of both durable and perishable commodities are widespread. Losses inflicted throughout the supply chain due to pathogen-induced diseases are the major component of food wastage and may occur at any time from preharvest to consumption.
The capability of a microorganism to initiate postharvest diseases, as well as its final outcome, depend on a number of factors that can conveniently be associated with, microorganism, the host and/or the environment.
The integrative strategies for control of postharvest diseases include effectively inhibiting pathogens growth, enhancing resistance of hosts and improving environmental conditions resulting favourable to the host and unfavourable to the pathogen growth. The strategies that can directly act upon the microbial pathogens may be integrated as, physical + chemical, physical+ biocontrol, biocontrol + chemical and resistance+biocontrol + physical + chemical methods. The possibility of integrating the different effective strategies to achieve higher level of control of postharvest pathogens and to minimize or replace the use of synthetic fungicides has to be explored in certain host–pathogen systems.
The considered species include apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, and grape.
Conclusions of the paper are following:
It is essential to ensure that close coordination, constant surveillance, and efficient technical support for rapid detection and precise identification of microbial pathogens, and feedback on the effectiveness of corrective measures taken to restrict the incidence and subsequent spread of diseases, are available.
Avoidance of wounds to the harvested produce is the basic precaution, to be strictly enforced in all cases. Though these methods are nonspecific, they will effectively reduce the chances of infection by microbial pathogens.
The strategies that can directly act on the microbial pathogens may be integrated broadly into four combinations:
(1) physical + chemical,
(2) physical + biocontrol,
(3) biocontrol + chemical, and
(4) Resistance + biocontrol + physical + chemical methods.
Various strategies for the management of postharvest diseases have been found to be effective to varying levels under wide range of conditions which interact with each other. The possibility of integrating the different effective strategies to achieve higher level of control of postharvest pathogens and to minimize or replace the use of synthetic fungicides has to be explored in certain host–pathogen systems.
The usefulness of integrating different strategies to provide better control of diseases and to obtain safe, disease- and residue-free food products is the need of hour.
Post Harvest Diseases of Temperate Fruits and their Management Strategies-A Review
S. U. Nabi, W. H. Raja, K. L. Kumawat, J. I. Mir, O. C. Sharma, D. B. Singh and and M. A. Sheikh
ICAR-CITH, Old Airfield Rangreth Srinagar J&K, 191132
Image, Major postharvest diseases of temperate fruits and causal agents