Mohammed et al., J Food Process Technol 2017, 8:12
Golden apple can be considered as an exotic fruit which imparts a distinct Caribbean flavor when utilized in a variety of fresh beverages and dishes. Further, in view of the small acreages under cultivation and not classified as a plantation crop, it received limited attention in industrial processing. However, until the recent introduction of dwarf varieties and newly introduced improved lines, interest in production has increased. This moreso as the demand for fresh fruit in the United States of America and Canada has quadrupled in the last decade by the West Indian diaspora due to the processing potential of the fruit into juices, nectars, jams and jellies.
While there are several production bulletins and journal articles on the agronomy of the fruit, less emphasis is placed on the pre-harvest, postharvest and development of value added food products for the regional and extra regional markets.
This review collates all available literature on the topic including personal communication with expertise in the subject area to analyze and chart a course of research and development to fill the gap in the postharvest physiology and storage of the crop.
Abstract of the review
The golden apple (Spondias dulsis forst. syn. Spondias cytherea Sonn.) originated in the Society of Islands in the South Pacific and widely distributed in the Caribbean, Florida Keys, Hawaii, Venezuela and Central America and has successfully adapted as a natural part of the landscape and diet.
Golden apple fruits at the mature-green, semi-ripe and ripe stages of maturity are utilized in the fresh and processed states and are a major export fruit and foreign exchange earner for many Caribbean islands. The fruit is an ovoid drupe with a spiny stone, climacteric in nature and exists in two forms: the large type (diameter 5-6 cm, length 9-10 cm,
average weight 200 g) and the miniature or dwarf type (diameter 4-5 cm, length 5-6 cm, average weight 65 g).
Golden apple fruits stored under ambient conditions require 6-9 days to undergo ripening from the mature-green stage to the golden yellow full ripe stage compared to storage under refrigerated conditions where an additional 6-10 days are needed to achieve the same objective.
Mature-green fruits have a total soluble solids (TSS) content of 4.6-10.9%, total titratable acidity (TTA) of 0.45-1.07% and TSS/ TTA of 7.7-19.1.
Fully ripened fruits on the other hand have 9-16.3% TSS, 0.53-1.16% TTA and 8.7-22.4 TSS: TTA.
Golden apple fruits are an excellent source of antioxidants with phenolic compounds averaging 349.5 mg gallic acid per 100 g-1 fresh weight and vitamin C of 52.0 mg per 100-1 fresh weight.
Golden apple fruit of both genetic lines are very sensitive to chilling injury (CI). Waxing effectively delayed the appearance of CI symptoms such as pitting.
The ripened golden apple fruits are used to make jams, preserved jellies, nectars and sparkling beverages. Unripe fruits are eaten in curries, or as green salads, pickles, chutneys, sauces and amchar. More recently, the fruit skin has been recognized as a novel source of pectin and utilized as a gelling agent in jams, confectionary and bakery fillings as well as a stabilizer in yogurts and milk drinks.
Postharvest Physiology and Storage of Golden Apple (Spondias cythera sonnerat or Spondias dulcis forst): A Review
Mohammed M1*, Bridgemohan P2, Mohamed MS2, Bridgemohan RSH3, and Mohammed Z4
1 Faculty of Food and Agriculture, Department of Food Production, University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago
2 Biosciences Agriculture and Food Technology, The University of Trinidad and Tobago, Waterloo Research Campus, Carapichaima, Trinidad and Tobago
3 Georgia College and State University, GA, USA
4 State University of New York (SUNY), Plattsburg, New York, USA
J Food Process Technol 2017, 8:12
Picture - Mature green golden apples of the miniature and large types