Review on natural products to control postharvest diseases

Review on natural products to control postharvest diseases

Nahidun Nesa Chowdhury et al., Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

Fruits contain enormous source of vitamins that provides energy to the human body. These are also affluent in essential and vital vitamins, minerals, fiber, and health-promoting components, which has led to an increase in fruit consumption in recent years. Though fruit consumption has expanded considerably in recent years, the use of synthetic chemicals to ripen or store fruits has been steadily increasing, resulting in postharvest deterioration. Alternatives to synthetic chemicals should be considered to control this problem. Instead of utilizing synthetic chemicals, this study suggests using natural plant products to control postharvest decay.

The aim of this study indicates how natural plant products can be useful and effective to eliminate postharvest diseases rather than using synthetic chemicals. Several electronic databases were investigated as information sources, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Semantic Scholar, MEDLINE, and CNKI Scholar.

The current review focused on the postharvest of fruits has become more and more necessary because of these vast demands of fruits. Pathogen-induced diseases are the main component and so the vast portion of fruits get wasted after harvest. Besides, it may occur harmful during harvesting and subsequent handling, storage, and marketing and after consumer purchasing and also causes for numerous endogenous and exogenous diseases via activating ROS, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, etc.

However, pathogenicity can be halted by using postharvest originating natural fruits containing bioactive elements that may be responsible for the management of nutritional deficiency, inflammation, cancer, and so on. However, issues arising during the postharvest diseases must be controlled and resolved before releasing the horticultural commodities for commercialization.

Therefore, the control of postharvest pathogens still depends on the use of synthetic fungicides; however, due to the problem of the development of the fungicide-resistant strains there is a good demand of public to eradicate the use of pesticides with the arrival of numerous diseases that are expanded in their intensity by the specific chemical product.

By using of the organic or natural products for controlling postharvest diseases of fruits has become a mandatory step to take. In addition, antimicrobial packaging may have a greater impact on long-term food security by lowering the risk of pathogenicity and increasing the longevity of fruit shelf life.

Taken together, natural chemicals as acetaldehyde, hexanal, eugenol, linalool, jasmonates, glucosinolates, essential oils, and many plant bioactive are reported for combating of the postharvest illnesses and guide to way of storage of fruits in this review.

Common diseases of fruits
Gray mold of apple
Gray mold of grape
Black rot of pear
Brown rot of orange
Brown rot of cherry
Leather rot of strawberry

Synthetic microbicides and their potential risk

Natural compounds as an alternative of synthetic chemicals
Essential oils
Sulfuric compounds
Phenolic compounds

Mechanism of action of natural products

Development in biocontrol efficacy using natural plant

Commercial applications

Conclusion and future perspective

Table 1, Potential risks and contrast of properties among common microbicides, contains information about ozone, peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine, titanium dioxide, nitric oxide, aqueous chlorine dioxide, and gaseous chlorine dioxide.

Table 2, Natural plants for controlling postharvest disease, contains information about cinnamon, thyme, mandarine fruit; neem, clove, lemon grass, and eucalyptus; cinnamon, oregano, lemongrass, and clove; Greek oreegano or wintor sweet merjoram; orange, papaya; grapes.

Table 3, Biocontrol efficacy of natural plants, contains information about biocontrol agents for diseases of apple (anthracnose, white rot, gray mold), pear gray mold, blue mold), strawberry (gray mold), kiwi (rot diseases), litchi (rot diseases), melon (rot diseases), citrus fruits (green mold), plums (brown rot), cherry (decay), pineapple (black rot), apricots (brown and gray mold rotss), grapes (gray mold), mango (malformation, anthracnose), banana (crown rot), nectarine (Rhizopus rot), jujube (Alternaria rot), papaya (Anthracnose and phomopsis rot).

Natural plant products as effective alternatives to synthetic chemicals for postharvest fruit storage management
Nahidun Nesa Chowdhury, Mohammad Nazmul Islam, Rifat Jafrin, Abdur Rauf, Anees Ahmed Khalil, Talha Bin Emran, Abdullah S. M. Aljohani, Fahad A. Alhumaydhi, Jose M. Lorenzo, Mohammad Ali Shariati & Jesus Simal-Gandara
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition